Sample-to-answer platform for the clinical evaluation of COVID-19 using a deep learning-assisted smartphone-based assay

Seungmin Lee, Sunmok Kim, Dae Sung Yoon, Jeong Soo Park, Hyowon Woo, Dongho Lee, Sung Yeon Cho, Chulmin Park, Yong Kyoung Yoo, Ki  Baek Lee, Jeong Hoon Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Since many lateral flow assays (LFA) are tested daily, the improvement in accuracy can greatly impact individual patient care and public health. However, current self-testing for COVID-19 detection suffers from low accuracy, mainly due to the LFA sensitivity and reading ambiguities. Here, we present deep learning-assisted smartphone-based LFA (SMARTAI-LFA) diagnostics to provide accurate decisions with higher sensitivity. Combining clinical data learning and two-step algorithms enables a cradle-free on-site assay with higher accuracy than the untrained individuals and human experts via blind tests of clinical data (n = 1500). We acquired 98% accuracy across 135 smartphone application-based clinical tests with different users/smartphones. Furthermore, with more low-titer tests, we observed that the accuracy of SMARTAI-LFA was maintained at over 99% while there was a significant decrease in human accuracy, indicating the reliable performance of SMARTAI-LFA. We envision a smartphone-based SMARTAI-LFA that allows continuously enhanced performance by adding clinical tests and satisfies the new criterion for digitalized real-time diagnostics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2361
JournalNature communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Dec

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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