With global expansion of the COVID-19 pandemic and the emergence of new variants, extensive efforts have been made to develop highly effective antiviral drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. The interactions of coronaviruses with host antiviral interferon pathways ultimately determine successful viral replication and SARS-CoV-2-induced pathogenesis. Innate immune receptors play an essential role in host defense against SARS-CoV-2 via the induction of IFN production and signaling. Here, we summarize the recent advances in innate immune sensing mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 and various strategies by which SARS-CoV-2 antagonizes antiviral innate immune signaling pathways, with a particular focus on mechanisms utilized by multiple SARS-CoV-2 proteins to evade interferon induction and signaling in host cell. Understanding the underlying immune evasion mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 is essential for the improvement of vaccines and therapeutic strategies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Paz Altamirano, Anya Deubel, Krystina Mainz, Anja Pachenkova and Carolina Stönner for their support when conducting the study. We further thank Shalom Schwartz for kindly providing us with the translations of the Portrait Values Questionnaire. CM is grateful for the Klaus Murmann Scholarship awarded by the Stiftung der Deutschen Wirtschaft. We acknowledge support by the Open Access Publication Fund of the Freie Universität Berlin.
This research was funded by the Basic Science Research Program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2019R1A2C1005961), and Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (HI21C1252).
© 2022, The Microbiological Society of Korea.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology