SASDL and RBATQ: Sparse Autoencoder With Swarm Based Deep Learning and Reinforcement Based Q-Learning for EEG Classification

Sunil Kumar Prabhakar, Seong Whan Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The most vital information about the electrical activities of the brain can be obtained with the help of Electroencephalography (EEG) signals. It is quite a powerful tool to analyze the neural activities of the brain and various neurological disorders like epilepsy, schizophrenia, sleep related disorders, parkinson disease etc. can be investigated well with the help of EEG signals. Goal: In this paper, two versatile deep learning methods are proposed for the efficient classification of epilepsy and schizophrenia from EEG datasets. Methods: The main advantage of using deep learning when compared to other machine learning algorithms is that it has the capability to accomplish feature engineering on its own. Swarm intelligence is also a highly useful technique to solve a wide range of real-world, complex, and non-linear problems. Therefore, taking advantage of these factors, the first method proposed is a Sparse Autoencoder (SAE) with swarm based deep learning method and it is named as (SASDL) using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique, Cuckoo Search Optimization (CSO) technique and Bat Algorithm (BA) technique; and the second technique proposed is the Reinforcement Learning based on Bidirectional Long-Short Term Memory (BiLSTM), Attention Mechanism, Tree LSTM and Q learning, and it is named as (RBATQ) technique. Results and Conclusions: Both these two novel deep learning techniques are tested on epilepsy and schizophrenia EEG datasets and the results are analyzed comprehensively, and a good classification accuracy of more than 93% is obtained for all the datasets.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)58-68
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Open Journal of Engineering in Medicine and Biology
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 IEEE.


  • Deep learning
  • EEG
  • PSO
  • Q-learning
  • reinforcement learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering


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