Flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) are emerging as sustainable power sources for self-charging wearable electronic devices owing to their ability to harvest ambient mechanical energy. The use of piezopolymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and piezoceramic barium titanate (BaTiO3) as flexible composite materials for PENGs deposited using the supersonic cold-spraying technique was investigated in this study. The PENG with an optimized concentration of BaTiO3 to PVDF generated a piezoelectric voltage of 11.5 V when subjected to a tapping force of 5 N for 15,000 cycles. Scanning electron microscopy images captured after cycling confirm the robustness of the BaTiO3 and PVDF composite films. A maximum power of 28.7 μW was achieved at an impedance-matching resistance of 0.7 MΩ. A flexible-PENG bending test of 3000 cycles with a bending radius of 0.8 cm confirmed the durability when an optimal PVDF matrix accommodated well-dispersed BaTiO3 particles. Furthermore, the ferroelectric characteristics of BaTiO3 and PVDF were activated by electrical poling for 14 h, thereby increasing an open circuit voltage to 37.5 V, indicating the possibility of a 3.3-times enhancement after poling.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) NRF-2020R1A5A1018153 , NRF-2021R1A2C2010530 , and 2022M3J1A106422611 . The authors extend their appreciation to the Deputyship for Research and Innovation, Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia for Funding this research, IFKSUOR3-407 .
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd
- Electrical poling
- Flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators
- Supersonic cold-spraying
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- General Materials Science
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering