Secretion of adenylate kinase 1 is required for extracellular ATP synthesis in C2C12 myotubes

Hyo Jung Choo, Bong Woo Kim, Oh Bong Kwon, Seok Lee Chang, Jong Soon Choi, Young Gyu Ko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Extracellular ATP (exATP) has been known to be a critical ligand regulating skeletal muscle differentiation and contractibility. ExATP synthesis was greatly increased with the high level of adenylate kinase 1 (AK1) and ATP synthase β during C2C12 myogenesis. The exATP synthesis was abolished by the knock-down of AK1 but not by that of ATP synthase β in C2C12 myotubes, suggesting that AK1 is required for exATP synthesis in myotubes. However, membrane-bound AK1β was not involved in exATP synthesis because its expression level was decreased during myogenesis in spite of its localization in the lipid rafts that contain various kinds of receptors and mediate cell signal transduction, cell migration, and differentiation. Interestingly, cytoplasmic AK1 was secreted from C2C12 myotubes but not from C2C12 myoblasts. Taken together all these data, we can conclude that AK1 secretion is required for the exATP generation in myotubes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)220-228
Number of pages9
JournalExperimental and Molecular Medicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Apr 30


  • ATP synthase
  • Adenosine triphosphate
  • Adenylate kinase 1
  • Membrane microdomains
  • Muscle development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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