Seismic Performance of F3D Free-Form Structures Using Small-Scale Shaking Table Tests

Min Jae Park, Gain Cheon, Robel Wondimu Alemayehu, Young K. Ju

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In recent years, studies that can maximize irregularity have increased as technological constraints weaken owing to the development of construction technology and the increase in demand for free-form structures. Considering this, free-form structures have been constructed using various materials. Concrete is considered most suitable for realizing an atypical shape because it is highly economical and can be assembled in a free form. However, not many studies have evaluated the structural performance of free-form concrete structures using free-form formwork 3D printer (F3D) technology, a 3D printing technology. Free-form structures must be designed to secure structural stability under both dead and live loads, as well as natural hazards such as wind, snow, and earthquakes. Therefore, in this study, we tested a free-form structure constructed by F3D printing using small-scale models that satisfy the similitude law with shaking tables. Furthermore, a finite element analysis was conducted to validate the small-scale tests. Lastly, the seismic performance of free-form concrete structures was evaluated based on the test and analysis results.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2868
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Apr 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIT) (No. NRF-2021R1A5A1032433 & NRF-2020R1A2C3005687). The authors are grateful to the authorities for their support.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • F3D
  • free-form structures
  • seismic performance
  • shaking table test
  • small-scale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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