Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants–Possibility of universal vaccine design: A review

Eunhye Yoon, Dahyun Kim, Hyeeun Jeon, Yejin Kwon, Yejin Jang, Sulhee Kim, Kwang Yeon Hwang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Both novel and conventional vaccination strategies have been implemented worldwide since the onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite various medical advances in the treatment and prevention of the spread of this contagious disease, it remains a major public health threat with a high mortality rate. As several lethal SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to emerge, the development of several vaccines and medicines, each with certain advantages and disadvantages, is underway. Additionally, many modalities are at various stages of research and development or clinical trials. Here, we summarize emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, including delta, omicron, and “stealth omicron,” as well as available oral drugs for COVID-19. We also discuss possible antigen candidates other than the receptor-binding domain protein for the development of a universal COVID-19 vaccine. The present review will serve as a helpful resource for future vaccine and drug development to combat COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3533-3544
Number of pages12
JournalComputational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jan

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s)


  • Antigen
  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus
  • Oral drug
  • Receptor-binding domain
  • Universal vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biophysics
  • Structural Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Genetics
  • Computer Science Applications


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