Shortest-Path-Based Two-Phase Design Model for Hydraulically Efficient Water Distribution Network: Preparing for Extreme Changes in Water Availability

Seungyub Lee, Donghwi Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Environmental issues can cause changes in source water availability in water distribution networks (WDNs). Thus, an efficient connection between the source and consumers is important for securing water serviceability, which can generally be achieved by minimizing energy losses. In this study, a novel two-phase design (TPD) model is proposed to design an energy-efficient WDN by maximizing a hydraulic geodesic index (HGI), which is the weighted shortest path from the source to the demand node. Before applying the TPD model for WDN design, a correlation analysis between the system HGI, hydraulic performance, and graph theory indices is conducted using 33 J-City networks to verify the proposed HGI. Next, the TPD model is used to determine the optimal layout of the grid network (Phase I). Based on this layout, the optimal diameter set is identified in Phase II. The TPD is thereafter compared with the traditional single-phase design (SPD) model, which determines the optimal layout and diameter simultaneously, and a least-cost model for each phase in the grid network layout and pipe-sizing problem. The correlation analysis clearly indicates that the system HGI with the weighted graph theory successfully determines the hydraulic performance without any hydraulic analysis. Furthermore, TPD is advantageous for designing energy-efficient, hydraulically and structurally sustainable, and resilient networks, as compared to SPD and the least-cost model. The TPD model is expected to provide a better opportunity to prepare for extreme water availability changes by enhancing the hydraulic performance and efficiency through a better connection between the source and nodes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9393906
Pages (from-to)53358-53369
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Connectivity
  • energy efficiency
  • graph theory
  • resilience
  • sustainable development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)


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