Silver–nickel core–shell nanostructure on cellulose fibers as biodegradable wearable paper heater

Ashwin Khadka, Byeong Yeop Kim, Shrayas Pradhan, Chanwoo Park, Woojin Lim, Ali Aldalbahi, Govindasami Periyasami, Bhavana Joshi, Sam S. Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, the traditional Korean Hanji or Han-paper, comprising cellulose fibers obtained from mulberry bark, was coated with silver nanowires (AgNWs) via supersonic spraying; this was followed by electroplating with nickel to produce a silver–nickel (AgNW–Ni) core–shell nanostructure, thereby protecting the nanostructures of the AgNWs from thermal breakdown. The Hanji cellulose fibers coated with the core–shell AgNW–Ni were used as a paper heater. The nickel electroplating time was increased to thicken the nickel shell enwrapping the AgNWs. The electrical properties of the Hanji heater were investigated to identify the optimal AgNW–Ni core–shell nanostructure. The surface temperature of the AgNW–Ni Hanji heater reached 125 °C at 7 V without thermal breakup of the AgNWs with long-term stability. Under excessive electroplating, the entire Hanji substrate was covered with nickel. In this scenario, a nickel layer was formed over the Hanji, which substantially reduced the electrical resistivity of the layer. This metal–metal core–shell nanostructure can be attached to any type of substrate, including rigid alumina, polyethylene terephthalate, and bulk plastic; this makes the method versatile and widely applicable. Stringent bending radius and cyclic tests confirmed the mechanical durability and thermal stability of the silver–nickel core–shell Hanji heater.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6559-6569
Number of pages11
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jul

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government NRF-2020R1A5A1018153, NRF-2021R1A2C2010530, and 2022M3J1A106422611. The authors acknowledge King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, for funding this work through Researchers Supporting Project number (RSP2023R30).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.


  • Electroplating
  • Hanji
  • Nickel
  • Silver nanowires
  • Supersonic spraying
  • Wearable heater

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Polymers and Plastics


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