Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have emerged as important regulators of skeletal muscle metabolism and regeneration. However, the direct roles of the various PRMTs during skeletal muscle remodeling remain unclear. Using skeletal muscle-specific prmt1 knockout mice, we examined the function and downstream targets of PRMT1 in muscle homeostasis. We found that muscle-specific PRMT1 deficiency led to muscle atrophy. PRMT1-deficient muscles exhibited enhanced expression of a macroautophagic/autophagic marker LC3-II, FOXO3 and muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases, TRIM63/MURF-1 and FBXO32, likely contributing to muscle atrophy. The mechanistic study reveals that PRMT1 regulates FOXO3 through PRMT6 modulation. In the absence of PRMT1, increased PRMT6 specifically methylates FOXO3 at arginine 188 and 249, leading to its activation. Finally, we demonstrate that PRMT1 deficiency triggers FOXO3 hyperactivation, which is abrogated by PRMT6 depletion. Taken together, PRMT1 is a key regulator for the PRMT6-FOXO3 axis in the control of autophagy and protein degradation underlying muscle maintenance. Abbreviations: Ad-RNAi: adenovirus-delivered small interfering RNA; AKT: thymoma viral proto-oncogene; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; Baf A1: bafilomycin A1; CSA: cross-sectional area; EDL: extensor digitorum longus; FBXO32: F-box protein 32; FOXO: forkhead box O; GAS: gatrocnemieus; HDAC: histone deacetylase; IGF: insulin-like growth factor; LAMP: lysosomal-associated membrane protein; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; mKO: Mice with skeletal muscle-specific deletion of Prmt1; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; MYH: myosin heavy chain; MYL1/MLC1f: myosin, light polypeptide 1; PRMT: protein arginine N-methyltransferase; sgRNA: single guide RNA; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; SOL: soleus; TA: tibialis anterior; TRIM63/MURF-1: tripartite motif-containing 63; YY1: YY1 transcription factor.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (MSIP) (NRF-2016R1A2B2007179, NRF-2017M3A9D8048710 and NRF-2016R1A5A2945889 to J.S.K., and NRF-2018R1A2B3001540, NRF-2015R1A5A1009024 and NRF-2017M3A 9D5A01052447 to S.H.K.).
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- Arginine methylation
- muscle atrophy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology