Skeletal Nanostructures Promoting Electrocatalytic Reactions with Three-Dimensional Frameworks

Ho Young Kim, Minki Jun, Kwangyeol Lee, Sang Hoon Joo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Hollow skeletal nanomaterials, such as nanoframes and nanocages, represent a class of advanced electrocatalysts and exhibit excellent performance in various electrochemical energy conversion reactions. Their three-dimensional (3D) framework, which allows a high surface-area-to-volume ratio, efficient molecular accessibility, and nanoscale confinement effect, leads to higher catalytic activity compared to solid nanoparticle (NP)-based catalysts without requiring the use of a significant amount of precious metal. In this Perspective, we present notable exemplars of skeletal nanostructures that have demonstrated superior activity over solid NP-based catalysts. In particular, we highlight that the 3D framework in skeletal nanostructures consists of inherently reactive catalytic surfaces and discuss a multitude of factors affecting the excellent performance of skeletal nanocatalysts. We next introduce the design strategies that promote the catalytic activity and durability of skeletal nanostructures, including the strengthening of framework structures and the reorganization of the atomic array in a skeletal nanostructure. Finally, we provide future research directions in this emerging class of catalysts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-374
Number of pages20
JournalACS Catalysis
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jan 6

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (NRF-2019M3E6A1064521, NRF-2019M3D1A1079306, NRF-2019M1A2A2065614, and NRF-2021R1A2C2007495 to S.H.J.; NRF-2019R1A6A1A11044070 and NRF-2021M3H4A1A02049916 to K.L.). H.Y.K. acknowledges the support of the KIST Institutional Program (project no. 2E32149).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.


  • alloys
  • electrocatalysis
  • energy conversion reactions
  • nanoscale confinement effect
  • skeletal nanostructures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • General Chemistry


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