Sleep Duration and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Community-Based Cohort Study with a 16-Year Follow-up

Da Young Lee, Inha Jung, So Young Park, Ji Hee Yu, Ji A. Seo, Kyeong Jin Kim, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Seung Ku Lee, Chol Shin, Nan Hee Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: We aimed to investigate the moderating effects of obesity, age, and sex on the association between sleep duration and the development of diabetes in Asians. Methods: We analyzed data from a cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study conducted from 2001 to 2020. After excluding shift workers and those with diabetes at baseline, 7,407 participants were stratified into three groups according to sleep duration: ≤5 hours/night, >5 to 7 hours/night (reference), and >7 hours/night. The Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Subgroup analyses were performed according to obesity, age, and sex. Results: During 16 years of follow-up, 2,024 cases of T2DM were identified. Individuals who slept ≤5 h/night had a higher risk of incident diabetes than the reference group (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.33). The subgroup analysis observed a valid interaction with sleep duration only for obesity. A higher risk of T2DM was observed in the ≤5 hours/night group in non-obese individuals, men, and those aged <60 years, and in the >7 hours/night group in obese individuals (HRs were 1.34 [95% CI, 1.11 to 1.61], 1.22 [95% CI, 1 to 1.49], and 1.18 [95% CI, 1.01 to 1.39], respectively). Conclusion: This study confirmed the effect of sleep deprivation on the risk of T2DM throughout the 16-year follow-up period. This impact was confined to non-obese or young individuals and men. We observed a significant interaction between sleep duration and obesity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)146-155
Number of pages10
JournalEndocrinology and Metabolism
Volume38
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by funds from the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2001-347-6111-221, 2002-347-6111-221, 2003-347-6111-221, 2004-E71001-00, 2005-E71001-00, 2006-E71005-00, 2007-E71001-00, 2008-E71001-00, 2009-E71002-00, 2010-E71001-00, 2011-E71004-00, 2012-E71005-00, 2013-E71005-00, 2014-E71003-00, 2015-P71001-00, 2016-E71003-00, 2017-E71001-00, and 2018-E7101-00), the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the National Research Foundation (NRF) (NRF-2019M3E5-D3073102 and NRF-2019R1H1A2039682) and a National IT Industry Promotion Agency (NIPA) grant (No. S0252-21-1001, Development of AI Precision Medical Solution (Doctor Answer 2.0), the Basic Science Research Program through NRF funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2020R1I1A1A01071665) funded by the Korean government (MSIT), and the Korea University Ansan Hospital Grant (K2111021). However, the funders did not participate in the study design or reporting.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2023 Korean Endocrine Society.

Keywords

  • Cohort studies
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Diabetes mellitus, type 2
  • Obesity
  • Sleep
  • Sleep deprivation
  • Sleep duration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

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