Slow injection of nefopam reduces pain intensity associated with intravenous injection: A prospective randomized trial

Young Min Kim, Byung Gun Lim, Heezoo Kim, Myoung Hoon Kong, Mi Kyoung Lee, Il Ok Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: We aimed to investigate the frequency and severity of pain associated with intravenous injection of nefopam and to determine whether a slow rate of administration can effectively reduce such pain. Methods: We used a solution containing 30 mg nefopam diluted to 20 ml in saline. In all, 102 adult patients undergoing minor surgery were randomly allocated to one of three administration groups: A (60 ml/h, n = 34); B (120 ml/h, n = 34); or C (180 ml/h, n = 34). All patients scored the maximal pain experienced during the 120-s infusion period, using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the verbal pain score (VPS). Adverse events including phlebitis were recorded. Results: Eighty-three patients (29 in group A, 27 each in groups B and C) were included in the final analysis. The incidence of injection pain was lower in group A (86.2 %) than in groups B (96.3 %) and C (100 %), but this difference was not statistically significant. The proportion of patients with a tolerable level of pain (VAS 0-3 and VPS 0-1) was significantly higher in group A (79.3 %) versus groups B (7.4 %) and C (3.7 %). The mean VAS scores for groups A, B, and C were 2.2 ± 1.3, 5.1 ± 1.6, and 7.2 ± 1.7, respectively, and these differences were statistically significant. Conclusions: At the slower rate of infusion (60 ml/h) of the 1.5 mg/ml nefopam solution, injection pain intensity was attenuated to a significantly greater degree than at the faster rates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)399-406
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Anesthesia
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jun
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This report was supported by a Korea University Grant to Dr. Lim.


  • Injection pain
  • Intravenous injections
  • Nefopam
  • Visual analogue pain scale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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