Soft-tissue alterations associated with acute, extended open reduction and internal fixation of orbital fractures

Michael J. Yaremchuk, Woo-Kyung Kim

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24 Citations (Scopus)


Soft-tissue alterations associated with radical degloving of the overlying soft tissues during extended open reduction and rigid internal fixation of facial fractures involving 51 orbits in 36 patients were studied. In all patients, the blepharoplasty skin muscle flap incision was employed in conjunction with, as necessary, a gingivobuccal sulcus and coronal incisions. Patients were evaluated between 6 and 20 months after surgery. Physical examination and standardized photographs were used for assessment. Ectropion developed in 2 lids (4%), and 10 lids (20%) had increased scierai show. Thirteen of the 51 lids (25%) revealed lateral canthal displacement; all 13 lids underwent canthal stripping. Cheek pad displacement developed in 8 patients (22%), all of whom had complete maxillary degloving without soft-tissue resuspension. No patient had frontal nerve palsy. Depression in the temporal area was noted in all patients in whom the temporalis was mobilized. Remote incisions and soft-tissue degloving used for extended open reduction and internal fixation are associated with morbidity that can be minimized by meticulous technique and soft-tissue repositioning at closure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)134-140
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1992 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Caudal displacement
  • Ectropion
  • Extended open reduction
  • Orbital fractures
  • Temporal hollowing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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