In this paper, we investigate the use of proactive multipath routing to achieve energy-efficient operation of ad hoc wireless networks. The focus is on optimizing tradeoffs between the energy cost of spreading traffic and the improved spatial balance of energy burdens. We propose a simple scheme for multipath routing based on spatial relationships among nodes. Then, combining stochastic geometric and queueing models, we develop a continuum model for such networks, permitting an evaluation of different types of scenarios, i.e., with and without energy replenishing and storage capabilities. We propose a parameterized family of energy balancing strategies and study the spatial distributions of energy burdens based on their associated second-order statistics. Our analysis and simulations show the fundamental importance of the tradeoff explored in this paper, and how its optimization depends on the relative values of the energy reserves/storage, replenishing rates, and network load characteristics. For example, one of our results shows that the degree of spreading should roughly scale as the square root of the bits · meters load offered by a session. Simulation results confirm that proactive multipath routing decreases the probability of energy depletion by orders of magnitude versus that of a shortest path routing scheme when the initial energy reserve is high.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received March 4, 2005; revised October 4, 2006; approved by IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING Editor N. Shroff. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant ECS-0225448. This work was presented in part at IEEE INFOCOM 2005, Miami, FL.
- Gaussian random field
- Sensor networks
- Shot-noise process
- Stochastic geometry
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Science Applications
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering