Speciation and phytoavailability of lead and antimony in a small arms range soil amended with mussel shell, cow bone and biochar: EXAFS spectroscopy and chemical extractions

Mahtab Ahmad, Sang Soo Lee, Jung Eun Lim, Sung Eun Lee, Ju Sik Cho, Deok Hyun Moon, Yohey Hashimoto, Yong Sik Ok

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246 Citations (Scopus)


Mussel shell (MS), cow bone (CB) and biochar (BC) were selected to immobilize metals in an army firing range soil. Amendments were applied at 5% (wt) and their efficacies were determined after 175d. For metal phytoavailability test, maize (Zea mays L.) plants were cultivated for 3weeks. Results showed that all amendments decreased the exchangeable Pb by up to 99% in planted/unplanted soils. Contrarily, exchangeable Sb were increased in the MS- and CB-amended soils. The rise in soil pH (~1 unit) by the amendments affected Pb and Sb mobility in soils. Bioavailability of Pb to maize was reduced by up to 71% in the amended soils. The Sb uptake to maize was decreased by up to 53.44% in the BC-amended soil. Sequential chemical extractions showed the transformation of easily available Pb to stable residual form with the amendment treatments. Scanning electron microscopic elemental dot mapping revealed the Pb association with Al and Si in the MS-amended soil and that with P in the CB- and BC-amended soils. Additionally, the extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic analysis indicated the transformation of organic bound Pb in unamended control soil to relatively more stable Pb-hydroxide (Ksp=10-17.1), chloropyromorphite (Ksp=10-84.4) and Pb-phosphate (Ksp=10-23.8) in soils amended with MS, CB and BC, respectively. Application of BC was the best in decreasing the phytoavailability of Pb and Sb in the studied army firing range soil.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)433-441
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jan
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2012R1A1B3001409), and the Korea Ministry of Environment as “Geo-Advanced Innovative Action Project (G112-00056-0004-0)”. The instrumental analysis was partly supported by the Korea Basic Science Institute, the Environmental Research Institute and the Central Laboratory of Kangwon National University in Korea. The XAFS spectroscopy experimentation was in part conducted using a Beamline BL01B1 at the SPring-8, Hyogo, Japan, supported by the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI) (proposal nos. 2009A1255, 2010B1306, and 2012B1327).


  • Black carbon
  • Charcoal
  • Phytoavailability
  • Shooting range
  • Slow pyrolysis
  • Soil remediation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry


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