Sputtering of TiO2 for High-Efficiency Perovskite and 23.1% Perovskite/Silicon 4-Terminal Tandem Solar Cells

Sang Won Lee, Soohyun Bae, Kyungjin Cho, Seongtak Kim, Jae Keun Hwang, Wonkyu Lee, Solhee Lee, Ji Yeon Hyun, Seunghun Lee, Sung Bin Choi, Hongpil Chun, Won Mok Kim, Yoonmook Kang, Hae Seok Lee, Donghwan Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Radio frequency (RF) magnetron-sputtered TiO2 (RS-TiO2) is investigated as a hole-blocking layer for perovskite solar cells. RS-TiO2 shows conformal, dense, and efficiently electron transferable properties. Power conversion efficiency (PCEs) of 20.9% were obtained with high reproducibility. RS-TiO2 also showed potential in the up-scaling process, transparent perovskite, and perovskite/silicon 4-terminal tandem solar cells. With increasing active area 40 times from 0.075 cm2 to 3 cm2 without dividing areas by laser patterning, less than 4% open-circuit voltage (Voc) and short-circuit current density (Jsc) drops were observed. This means RS-TiO2 layers can maintain their film quality even when the area size is increased. Furthermore, by applying RS-TiO2 to transparent perovskite solar cells and perovskite/silicon 4-terminal tandem solar cells, PCEs of 16.7% and 23.1% were obtained, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6263-6268
Number of pages6
JournalACS Applied Energy Materials
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Sept 23

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the New & Renewable Energy Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea (No. 20173030014370, No. 20163010012430, and No. 20154030200760). This work was also supported by the KU-KIST Graduate School Project.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 American Chemical Society.


  • compact TiO
  • hole-blocking layer
  • perovskite solar cells
  • perovskite/silicon 4-terminal tandem
  • radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering
  • transparent perovskite solar cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electrochemistry


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