Stabilization of Cu-contaminated army firing range soils using waste oyster shells

Deok Hyun Moon, Kyung Hoon Cheong, Jeehyeong Khim, Dennis G. Grubb, Ilwon Ko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


A stabilization/solidification (S/S) process was used to immobilize Cu in contaminated soils obtained from two army firing ranges sites (A and B) with total Cu concentrations of 520 and 380 mg/kg, respectively. Both waste oyster shells (WOS) and pretreated oyster shells (POS) were used to immobilize Cu in the contaminated soils. Waste oyster shells passing the #10 mesh and #20 mesh were used for the Sites A and B, respectively. WOS- and POS-treated soil samples cured for 28 days were evaluated for Cu leaching by the Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT) method. Slurry suspensions were prepared to investigate the Cu immobilization mechanism using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The treatment results showed that the POS treatment was more effective than the WOS treatment of 28 days. For Site A, 10 wt% WOS and 3 wt% POS dosages were required to pass the Korean warning standard of 50 mg/kg, while 10 wt% WOS and 5 wt% POS dosages were required for the Site B treatment. The XRPD and SEM-EDX results showed that Cu immobilization was strongly linked to both CSH/CAH and ettringite. Overall, the POS treatment was effective at immobilizing the Cu in the contaminated soils, very likely due to its CaO content.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-166
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental geochemistry and health
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments This study was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment as The GAIA (Geo-Advanced Innovative Action) Project (No. 173-091-003).


  • Army firing range soils
  • Copper
  • Korean Standard Leaching Test method
  • Stabilization/solidification
  • Waste oyster shells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Water Science and Technology
  • General Environmental Science
  • Geochemistry and Petrology


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