Stabilization of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in contaminated rice paddy soil using starfish: A preliminary study

Deok Hyun Moon, Inseong Hwang, Agamemnon Koutsospyros, Kyung Hoon Cheong, Yong Sik Ok, Won Hyun Ji, Jeong Hun Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) contaminated rice paddy soil was stabilized using natural (NSF) and calcined starfish (CSF). Contaminated soil was treated with NSF in the range of 0–10 wt% and CSF in the range of 0–5 wt% and cured for 28 days. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test was used to evaluate effectiveness of starfish treatment. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses were conducted to investigate the mechanism responsible for effective immobilization of Pb and Zn. Experimental results suggest that NSF and CSF treatments effectively immobilize Pb and Zn in treated rice paddy soil. TCLP levels for Pb and Zn were reduced with increasing NSF and CSF dosage. Comparison of the two treatment methods reveals that CSF treatment is more effective than NSF treatment. Leachability of the two metals is reduced approximately 58% for Pb and 51% for Zn, upon 10 wt% NSF treatment. More pronounced leachability reductions, 93% for Pb and 76% for Zn, are achieved upon treatment with 5 wt% CSF. Sequential extraction results reveal that NSF and CSF treatments of contaminated soil generated decrease in exchangeable/weak acid Pb and Zn soluble fractions, and increase of residual Pb and Zn fractions. Results for the SEM-EDX sample treated with 5 wt% CSF indicate that effective Pb and Zn immobilization is most probably associated with calcium silicate hydrates (CSHs) and calcium aluminum hydrates (CAHs).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)459-467
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 2018 May

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd


  • Heavy metals
  • Immobilization
  • Sequential extraction
  • Starfish
  • TCLP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • General Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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