Stabilization of Pb2+ and Cu2+ contaminated firing range soil using calcined oyster shells and waste cow bones

Deok Hyun Moon, Kyung Hoon Cheong, Jeehyeong Khim, Mahmoud Wazne, Seunghun Hyun, Jeong Hun Park, Yoon Young Chang, Yong Sik Ok

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


Pb2+ and Cu2+ contamination at army firing ranges poses serious environmental and health risks to nearby communities necessitating an immediate and prompt remedial action. In this study, a novel mixture of calcined oyster shells (COSs) and waste cow bones (WCBs) was utilized to immobilize Pb2+ and Cu2+ in army firing range soils. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated based on the Korean Standard leaching test. The treatment results showed that Pb2+ and Cu2+ immobilization in the army firing range soil was effective in significantly reducing Pb2+ and Cu2+ leachability upon the combined treatment with COS and WCB. A drastic reduction in Pb2+ (99%) and Cu2+ leachability (95%) was obtained as compared to the control sample, upon treatment with 5wt.% COS and 5wt.% WCB. The combination treatment of COS and WCB was more effective for Pb immobilization, than the treatment with COS or WCB alone. The 5wt.% COS alone treatment resulted in 95% reduction in Cu2+ leachability. The SEM-EDX results suggested that Pb2+ and Cu2+ immobilization was most probably associated with the formation of ettringite, pozzolanic reaction products and pyromorphite-like phases at the same time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1349-1354
Number of pages6
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2013 May

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment as the GAIA (Geo-Advanced Innovative Action) Project (No. 173-111-040). This study was also partly supported by Basic Science Research Foundation through the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea, funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2012R1A1B3001409).


  • Cow bone
  • Firing range soil
  • Oyster shell
  • Stabilization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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