Steganography and encrypting based on immunochemical systems

Kyung Woo Kim, Vera Bocharova, Jan Halámek, Min Kyu Oh, Evgeny Katz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Steganography and encrypting were demonstrated with immuno-specific systems. IgG-proteins were used as invisible ink developed with complementary antibodies labeled with enzymes producing color spots. The information security was achieved by mixing the target protein-antigens used for the text encoding with masking proteins of similar composition but having different bioaffinity. Two different texts were simultaneously encoded by using two different encoding proteins in a mixture. Various encrypting techniques were exemplified with the immuno-systems used for the steganography. Future use of the developed approach for information protection and watermark-technology was proposed. Scaling down the encoded text to a micro-size is feasible with the use of nanotechnology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1100-1107
Number of pages8
JournalBiotechnology and Bioengineering
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2011 May


  • Antibody
  • Encrypting
  • Immunochemistry
  • Steganography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology


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