Strategy to Enhance Emergency Interconnected Operation of Water Distribution System

Hwandon Jun, Arin Gim, Donghwi Jung, Seungyub Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This study identified the causes of insufficient emergency interconnected operation (EIO) performance, such as pressure-related problems and connection problems caused by elevation differences between blocks, the characteristics and locations of emergency interconnection pipes (EIPs), and pumps. Then, it tested four strategies to improve the EIO performance, including increasing the EIP diameter or installing additional EIPs, pressure reducing valves (PRVs), or pumps. The advanced pressure-driven analysis model was applied to quantify the EIO performance improvement achieved using these strategies. Further, these strategies were tested in a real water distribution system. To solve the low-pressure problem, the EIP diameter was increased and an additional pump was installed; the former did not significantly improve, whereas the latter improved supply by 20–30%. To solve the high-pressure problem, PRVs were installed to maintain the EIO performance effectively. To solve connection problems, new EIPs were installed. Although this improved the supply performance, the installation of pumps was recommended to overcome elevation differences. The proposed strategies should contribute to the allocation of facilities such as EIPs, pumps, and PRVs for realizing effective EIO.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5804
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2022 May 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by Korea Environment Industry and Technology Institute (KEITI) through Intelligent Management Program for Urban Water Resources Project, funded by Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) (2019002950002).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • advanced pressure-driven analysis
  • disaster management
  • emergency interconnected operation
  • emergency interconnection pipe
  • resilience
  • water distribution system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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