Study of moving distance of ricocheted debris for various medium with air drag force coefficient

Yoon Keon Kim, Woo Chun Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


When a building explodes, debris generated bounces after hitting the ground with high energy. It is called the ricochet phenomenon. Ricochet phenomena increase the risk of damage by increasing the moving distance of the debris. The ricochet of debris is impacted by the type of medium. In this paper, the behavior and travel distance of debris after ricocheting are studied according to the type of medium. For various initial conditions, the ricochet of the debris was studied through FEM, and the resulting values were fitted to the 3D curved surface, to predict the speed and angle after the ricochet. The trajectory of the sphere was calculated with the flight formula, considering drag force by using the MATLAB. The ricochet of debris is impacted by the contact area with the medium. As the contact area increases, the reflection angle increases due to the increase of the repulsive force. As the size of the debris increases, the contact area increases and the energy loss increases, but it moves further because of the increase of the weight and kinetic energy. The type of media around the building can be used as an appropriate means of controlling the travel distance of the debris.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-58
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jan

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Korean Society for Precision Engineering This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • (Drag coefficient)
  • Concrete
  • Moving distance
  • Ricochet
  • Sand
  • Spherical debris

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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