Substitution mechanism of Ga for Zn site depending on deposition temperature for transparent conducting oxides

Deuk Hee Lee, Kyoungwon Kim, Yoon Soo Chun, Sangsig Kim, Sang Yeol Lee

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28 Citations (Scopus)


High quality transparent conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates using rf-magnetron sputtering system at the temperature ranging from room temperature (RT) to 500 °C. The temperature-dependence of Ga doping effect on the structural, optical and electrical properties in ZnO has been investigated. For the GZO thin films deposited at over 200 °C, (103) orientation was strongly observed by X-ray diffraction analysis, which is attributed to the substitution of Ga elements into Zn site. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements have confirmed that oxygen vacancies were generated at the temperature higher than 300 °C. This might be due to the effective substitution of Ga 3+ for Zn site at higher temperature. It was also found that the optical band gap increases with deposition temperature. The optical transmittance of GZO thin films was above 87% in the visible region. The GZO thin films grown at 500 °C showed a low electrical resistivity of 4.50 × 10 -4 Ω cm, a carrier concentration of 6.38 × 10 20 cm -3 and a carrier mobility of 21.69 cm 2/V.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1586-1590
Number of pages5
JournalCurrent Applied Physics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Nov

Bibliographical note

Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Ga-doped ZnO
  • Transparent conducting oxide
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
  • Zinc oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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