Sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation process for algal toxin mineralization in seawater desalination

Abayomi Babatunde Alayande, Seungkwan Hong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The effects of discharged brine from desalination plants, particularly brine containing algal toxins during harmful agal bloom (HAB) occurrence, are a major concern for marine life and, as a result, human health. Therefore, removing algal toxins from desalination brine is critical for safeguarding both human health and the marine environment. The present work examined the mineralization of domoic acid (DA), an algal toxin, in highly concentrated seawater for the first time using an ultraviolet light activated peroxymonosulfate (UV/PMS) system. Mineralization efficiencies, effects of various anion concentrations, and reaction by-products were investigated. The presence of anions such as chloride, bromide, and bicarbonate reduces the mineralization efficiency of the UV/PMS system, with bromide being the most detrimental. Although DA can be effectively degraded in synthetic seawater (35,000 ppm), total mineralization is not possible within 180 min of reaction time, with only 38.4 %, 44.8 %, and 41 % TOC removal in pH 3, 5, and 7, respectively, when 1 mM of PMS was used. Analyses of treated hypersaline seawater using ultra-high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ion chromatography revealed that DA was completely degraded in synthetic seawater and that, in the presence of algal organic matter, no toxic by-product was generated during the detoxification process. Overall, the UV/PMS system has the potential to be an effective treatment strategy for algal toxins in seawater during HAB events in the SWRO desalination process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115974
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Oct 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by Korea Environment Industry & Technology Institute (KEITI) through Industrial Facilities & Infrastructure Research Program, funded by Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) (116953).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.


  • Algal toxin
  • Degradation byproducts
  • Domoic acid
  • Hypersaline seawater
  • Mineralization
  • UV/PMS oxidation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Mechanical Engineering


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