Supersonically Sprayed Cobalt Titanate and PVDF for Flexible Piezoelectric Nanogenerators

Chanwoo Park, Bhavana Joshi, Edmund Samuel, Byeong Yeop Kim, Ali Aldalbahi, Mohamed El-Newehy, Hae Seok Lee, Sam S. Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) are the core components of self-powered devices used in sensors, ecofriendly wearable gadgets, and biomedical implants. This study introduces and demonstrates a flexible PENG with supersonically cold-sprayed films of cobalt titanate (CTO) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). An electrically poled PENG produces a maximum output voltage of 34.8 V under a tapping force of 20 N, whereas a CTO/PVDF-based PENG exhibits 25.4 V across a loading resistance (RL) of 50 MΩ and generates a short-circuit current of 30 μA at 0.1 MΩ. Furthermore, the maximum power density is 25 μW·cm-2 at RL=0.6 MΩ. Cyclic tapping and bending test results show that open-circuit voltages (Voc) of 25.4 and 5.8 V are produced under the tapping cycle of Ntap=4200 and bending cycle of Nbend=750, respectively, confirming the mechanical durability of the PENG. Thus, the potential of CTO/PVDF films for use in PENGs with various functionalities can be confirmed based on the Voc values generated from bending, mobile tapping, walking, and lifting movements.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8870780
JournalInternational Journal of Energy Research
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Chanwoo Park et al.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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