Surface-modified ultra-thin indium zinc oxide films with tunable work function for efficient hole transport in flexible indoor organic photovoltaics

Jae Wan Park, Ashkan Vakilipour Takaloo, Sang Hyeon Kim, Kyung Rock Son, Dae Yun Kang, Song Kyu Kang, Cheong Beom Lee, Hyosung Choi, Jae Won Shim, Tae Geun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


The stability of the electrical and optical properties of electrodes subjected to physical strain need to be ensured to enhance the performance of indoor organic photovoltaics (OPVs). In this study, we demonstrate the stable performances of flexible OPVs by producing an ultra-thin (20 nm) indium zinc oxide (IZO) electrode by co-depositing its surface with Ni metal, which improves the electrical conductivity and energy-level alignment owing to a hole-transport layer. As an anode, the resulting ultra-thin IZO electrode exhibits a relative sheet resistance of 250 Ω sq−1, high transmittance of 91.5% at 450 nm, and high work function of 5.05 eV. More importantly, the proposed electrode shows an enhanced bending performance, which is attributable to its amorphous structure formed as a result of co-deposition. Therefore, flexible OPVs with the proposed electrode show much higher performances (42% power conversion efficiency under indoor illumination) than those with a reference IZO anode. Furthermore, they exhibit outstanding flexural endurance properties while maintaining 84% of their original power conversion efficiency after 1500 cycles of bending at a bending radius of 8.1–4.2 mm on polyimide substrates. This study demonstrates an effective strategy for improving the performance of optoelectronic devices requiring electrical and mechanical stability.

Original languageEnglish
Article number229507
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Mar 31

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant, funded by the Korean government ( NRF-2016R1A3B1908249 ), and in part by the Korea Electric Power Corporation (Grant number: R18XA06-39 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.


  • Co-Sputtering process
  • Conductivity
  • Flexibility
  • Indoor organic photovoltaics
  • Transmittance
  • Ultra-thin indium zinc oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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