Surveillance for Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

Ji Sung Shim, Sung Gu Kang

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

    2 Citations (Scopus)


    Follow-up after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is necessary because of the significant risk of recurrence and progression. Cystoscopy remains the standard method for follow-up. When the first follow-up cystoscopy at 3 months after TURBT is negative, the following cystoscopies are traditionally repeated every 3 months for a period of 2 years, then every 6 months until the end of the fifth year, and yearly thereafter. This approach can now be tailored depending on individual risk of recurrence and progression. Low-risk patients can be discharged from cystoscopic follow-up after being free of recurrence for 5 years. In patients with a history of high-risk NMIBC including carcinoma in situ, urinary cytology should be used as an adjunct to cystoscopy with lifelong bladder follow-up and yearly upper tract imaging. Currently, urine markers have no adequate evidence-based role in the follow-up of NMIBC. A follow-up regimen for intermediate-risk patients is less clearly definable. It should be between low- and high-risk regimens according to the current guidelines. In summary, surveillance strategies should be individualized based on the risk of cancer recurrence at the bladder and extravesical sites.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationBladder Cancer
    PublisherElsevier Inc.
    Number of pages11
    ISBN (Electronic)9780128099407
    ISBN (Print)9780128099391
    Publication statusPublished - 2018

    Bibliographical note

    Publisher Copyright:
    © 2018 Ji Sung Shim and Sung Gu Kang Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    • Bladder
    • Cancer
    • Non-muscle
    • Surveillance

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • General Medicine


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