Sustainable water security based on the SDG framework: A case study of the 2019 Metro Manila Water Crisis

Halim Lee, Jaewon Son, Dayoon Joo, Jinhyeok Ha, Seongreal Yun, Chul Hee Lim, Woo Kyun Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Despite being Asia's fastest-growing economy, as of 2015, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) ranked the Philippines 33rd out of 48 countries in terms of water security. This verifies that economic development does not always lead to better provisions of basic needs. This study attempts to discover the fundamental issues that decrease water security in Metro Manila, the capital region of the Philippines. With El Niño disrupting the optimal weather conditions, Metro Manila is facing the lasting impacts of a water shortage crisis, which is the worst in the past decade. This research inspects the role of climate change in exacerbating El Niño, and its threat to the water security of the developing city. Furthermore, other factors that influence Metro Manila's water security are discussed. Upon establishing a correlation between climate change and El Niño, Metro Manila's general water management strategy is evaluated to better assess the multiple factors that have led to the current water shortage crisis. This paper is intended to recommend necessary and feasible proactive measures that are geared towards water security in Metro Manila, and possibly other cities with similar circumstances.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6860
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Sept

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 by the authors.


  • Climate change
  • El Niño
  • Metro Manila
  • SDGs
  • Water security

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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