Unique features of graphene have motivated the development of graphene-integrated photonic devices. In particular, the electrical tunability of graphene loss enables high-speed modulation of light and tuning of cavity resonances in graphene-integrated waveguides and cavities. However, efficient control of light emission such as lasing, using graphene, remains a challenge. In this work, we demonstrate on/off switching of single- and double-cavity photonic crystal lasers by electrical gating of a monolayer graphene sheet on top of photonic crystal cavities. The optical loss of graphene was controlled by varying the gate voltage Vg, with the ion gel atop the graphene sheet. First, the fundamental properties of graphene were investigated through the transmittance measurement and numerical simulations. Next, optically pumped lasing was demonstrated for a graphene-integrated single photonic crystal cavity at Vg below −0.6 V, exhibiting a low lasing threshold of ∼480 μW, whereas lasing was not observed at Vg above −0.6 V owing to the intrinsic optical loss of graphene. Changing quality factor of the graphene-integrated photonic crystal cavity enables or disables the lasing operation. Moreover, in the double-cavity photonic crystal lasers with graphene, switching of individual cavities with separate graphene sheets was achieved, and these two lasing actions were controlled independently despite the close distance of ∼2.2 μm between adjacent cavities. We believe that our simple and practical approach for switching in graphene-integrated active photonic devices will pave the way toward designing high-contrast and ultracompact photonic integrated circuits.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
H.-G.P. acknowledges support from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (2009-0081565 and 2014M3A6B3063710) and Korea University Future Research Grant. W.I.P. acknowledges support from NRF Grant (NRF 2015R1A2A11001426) and M.-K.S. acknowledges support from NRF Grant (2014M3A6B3063709).
© 2017 American Chemical Society.
- photonic crystals
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanical Engineering