Synergistic effect of microplastic fragments and benzophenone-3 additives on lethal and sublethal Daphnia magna toxicity

Joorim Na, Jinyoung Song, Jerry Collince Achar, Jinho Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Citations (Scopus)


The interactive effect of polyethylene microplastic (MP) fragments and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) additives on Daphnia magna was assessed in the present study. The 48 h median effective concentration (EC50) revealed that MP fragments (37.24 ± 11.76 μm; 3.90 mg L−1) were over 80 times more acutely toxic than polyethylene microbeads (37.05 ± 3.96 μm; 323 mg L−1), possibly because of their irregular shape and high specific surface area. Moreover, the addition of BP-3 (10.27 ± 0.40 % w/w) to MP fragments (MP + BP-3) resulted in greater acute toxicity to D. magna (EC50 = 0.99 mg L−1) compared to MP fragments (EC50 = 3.90 mg L−1) or BP-3 (EC50 = 2.29 mg L−1) alone. Additionally, MP + BP-3 exposure induced a synergistic increase in reactive oxygen species, total antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation in D. magna. These synergistic effects can be attributed to enhanced bioconcentrations of BP-3 in D. magna caused by MP fragments. These findings suggest that MP fragments containing chemical additives represent a synergistic ecological risk and have the potential to harm aquatic organisms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number123845
JournalJournal of hazardous materials
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jan 15

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by a grant from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) , funded by the Korean government ( NRF-2019R1A2C1002890 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier B.V.


  • Acute toxicity
  • Bioconcentration
  • Daphnid
  • Microplastics
  • Plastic additives

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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