Synthesis and microwave dielectric properties of Bi2Ge3O9 ceramics for application as advanced ceramic substrate

Xing Hua Ma, Sang Hyo Kweon, Sahn Nahm, Chong Yun Kang, Seok Jin Yoon, Young Sik Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


During the synthesis of Bi2Ge3O9 ceramics using Bi2O3 + 3GeO2 powders, the Bi4Ge3O12 phase was formed at low temperature (≤800 °C). Bi4Ge3O12 preferentially adopted GeO2-excess phase, and this phase was consistently present in the sintered Bi2Ge3O9 ceramic as a secondary phase. Therefore, Bi4Ge3O12 powder was first calcined and subsequently reacted with GeO2 powder to obtain the pure Bi2Ge3O9 ceramic through the following reaction: 1/2Bi4Ge3O12 + 3/2GeO2 → Bi2Ge3O9Formation of the Bi2Ge3O9 phase was initiated at temperature of 850 °C. The pure Bi2Ge3O9 ceramic sintered at 875 °C for 8 h had a dense microstructure with an average grain size of 2.7 μm. Furthermore, the pure Bi2Ge3O9 ceramic exhibited promising microwave dielectric properties for the advanced ceramic substrate: εr = 9.7, Q × f = 48,573 GHz and τf = −29.5 ppm/°C.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)605-610
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the European Ceramic Society
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Feb 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We would like to acknowledge the financial support from the R&D Convergence Program of MSIP (Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning) and NST (National Research Council of Science & Technology) of Republic Korea (Grant CAP-13-02-ETRI).


  • Advanced ceramic substrates
  • BiGeO ceramics
  • LTCC
  • Microwave dielectric properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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