Tab2vox: CNN-Based Multivariate Multilevel Demand Forecasting Framework by Tabular-To-Voxel Image Conversion

Euna Lee, Myungwoo Nam, Hongchul Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Since demand is influenced by a wide variety of causes, it is necessary to decompose the explanatory variables into different levels, extract their relationships effectively, and reflect them in the forecast. In particular, this contextual information can be very useful in demand forecasting with large demand volatility or intermittent demand patterns. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been successfully used in many fields where important information in data is represented by images. CNNs are powerful because they accept samples as images and use adjacent voxel sets to integrate multi-dimensional important information and learn important features. On the other hand, although the demand-forecasting model has been improved, the input data is still limited in its tabular form and is not suitable for CNN modeling. In this study, we propose a Tab2vox neural architecture search (NAS) model as a method to convert a high-dimensional tabular sample into a well-formed 3D voxel image and use it in a 3D CNN network. For each image representation, the 3D CNN forecasting model proposed from the Tab2vox framework showed superior performance, compared to the existing time series and machine learning techniques using tabular data, and the latest image transformation studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11745
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Sept


  • 3D CNN
  • demand forecasting
  • differentiable architecture search (DARTS)
  • neural architecture search (NAS)
  • spare parts
  • tabular to image conversion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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