Tailoring nanobranches in three-dimensional hierarchical rutile heterostructures: A case study of TiO2-SnO2

Sangbaek Park, Sangwook Lee, Se Won Seo, Seung Deok Seo, Chan Woo Lee, Donghoe Kim, Dong Wan Kim, Kug Sun Hong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


We employed HNO3 as a hydrolysis control agent and developed three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical rutile heterostructures (TiO 2-SnO2) with a high-density, uniform, and epitaxial TiO2 nanobranch tailored by a facile CBD method at a low temperature (∼50 °C). By investigating the influence of acids such as HNO 3, HCl, H2SO4, and HCOOH on the formation of TiO2 nanobranches on SnO2 nanobelts (NBs), we demonstrate that the rate of crystal growth can be promoted by HNO3 and that the poor ligand affinity of NO3- and the total charge variation of the Ti complex by H+ alter the precipitation rates, eventually controlling the length of the TiO2 nanorods. Additionally, it was found that short and long TiO2 nanorods were generated via the mechanism of diffusional- and reaction-controlled growth under moderate and high concentrations of HNO3, respectively. TiO2 nanorods grew epitaxially along the [001] direction on all four sides of SnO2 NB like the spokes of a wheel. This was attributed to the minimization of surface energy and lattice mismatch. This facile, surfactant-free, and low-temperature synthetic strategy may provide an alternative route for fabricating uniform and length-controlled nanobranches in 3D heterostructures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2939-2948
Number of pages10
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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