Temperature-dependent variability in lifetime prediction of thermally activated systems

R. Raj, J. S. Kong, D. M. Frangopol, I. E. Raj

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The lifetime of high-temperature systems is often controlled by thermally activated mechanisms such as diffusion. The variability in the lifetime of such systems is analyzed when the operating temperature varies according to a normal (Gaussian) distribution. Linear approximation analysis is employed to obtain simple closed from results for the probability density function (pdf) for the lifetime. The Gaussian variation in temperature is shown to transform to a log-normal distribution for the lifetime. The standard deviation of the log-normal distribution can be predicted from the activation energy, the peak temperature, and the standard deviation of the temperature distribution. Higher activation energy and lower operating temperature increase the variability of the lifetime. This approximate results is compared with the exact transformation. Lifetime experiments with incandescent tungsten lamps are compared to the theoretical prediction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1471-1476
Number of pages6
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Volume35 A
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2004 May

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys


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