Temporal feature modulation for video watermarking

Young Yoon Lee, Sang Uk Park, Chang-Su Kim, Sang Uk Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


We propose two temporal feature modulation algorithms that extract a feature from each video frame and modulate the features for a series of frames to embed a watermark codeword. In the first algorithm, the existence of a frame is used as the frame feature, and a watermark codeword is embedded into the original video by skipping selected frames. In the second algorithm, the centers of gravity of blocks in a frame are used as the frame feature. By modifying the centers of gravity, we embed 1-bit information into the frame. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms are robust against compression and temporal attacks.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4797835
Pages (from-to)603-608
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Apr

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received March 15, 2007; revised May 11, 2008. First version published March 4, 2009; current version published May 20, 2009. The work of Y.-Y. Lee, S.-U. Park, and S.-U. Lee was supported by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE), Korea, under the ITRC support program supervised by the IITA (grant number IITA-2008-C1090-0801-0018). The work of C.-S. Kim was supported by the MKE, Korea, under the ITRC support program supervised by the IITA (grant number IITA-2008-C1090-0801-0017). This paper was recommended by Associate Editor Q. Sun.


  • Frame skipping
  • Image fingerprinting
  • Temporal feature modulation
  • Video watermarking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Media Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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