Thalamic involvement in paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia: A combined structural and diffusion tensor MRI analysis

Ji Hyun Kim, Dong Wook Kim, Jung Bin Kim, Sang il Suh, Seong Beom Koh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Alteration of basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathophysiology underlying paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD). We investigated macrostructural and microstructural changes in PKD patients using structural and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analyses. Twenty-five patients with idiopathic PKD and 25 control subjects were prospectively studied on a 3T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. Cortical thickness analysis was used to evaluate cortical gray matter (GM) changes, and automated volumetry and shape analysis were used to assess volume changes and shape deformation of the subcortical GM structures, respectively. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to evaluate white matter integrity changes in a whole-brain manner, and region-of-interest (ROI) analysis of diffusion tensor metrics was performed in subcortical GM structures. Compared to controls, PKD patients exhibited a reduction in volume of bilateral thalami and regional shape deformation mainly localized to the anterior and medial aspects of bilateral thalami. TBSS revealed an increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) of bilateral thalami and right anterior thalamic radiation in patients relative to controls. ROI analysis also showed an increase in FA of bilateral thalami in patients compared to controls. We have shown evidence for thalamic abnormalities of volume reduction, regional shape deformation, and increased FA in patients with PKD. Our novel findings of concomitant macrostructural and microstructural abnormalities in the thalamus lend further support to previous observations indicating causal relationship between a preferential lesion in the thalamus and development of PKD, thus providing neuroanatomical basis for the involvement of thalamus within the basal ganglia-thalamocortical pathway in PKD. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1429-1441, 2015.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1429-1441
Number of pages13
JournalHuman Brain Mapping
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Apr 1
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


  • Diffusion tensor imaging
  • Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia
  • Structural MRI
  • Thalamus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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