The annealing effects of tungsten oxide interlayer based on organic photovoltaic cells

Sang Bin Lee, Jin Ho Beak, Byung Hyun Kang, Ki Young Dong, Youn Yeol Yu, Yang Doo Lee, Byeong Kwon Ju

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


We investigated the effect of tungsten oxide (WO3) interlayer as a hole collection layer on the performance of organic photovoltaic cells according to the thickness and temperature of the interlayer. The characteristics of organic photovoltaic cells such as fill factor, current density, and open circuit voltage are continuously improved by increasing the temperature of the WO3 interlayer. The surface of a treated WO 3 film promotes the crystallization of P3HT because a treated WO 3 film is more hydrophobic than a pristine WO3 film. Furthermore, the energy barrier between P3HT and the WO3 interlayer is minimized since the work function of the WO3 film after annealing progressively increases until a hole can be smoothly transferred. Therefore, organic photovoltaic cells using an interlayer of treated WO3 film have higher hole mobility and better efficiency. The efficiency of an organic photovoltaic cell with a 40 nm-thick WO3 interlayer is significantly enhanced from 0.94 to 3.04% as the temperature changes from room temperature to 350 C under AM 1.5G illumination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)203-208
Number of pages6
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the RFID R&D program of MKE/KEIT. (10035225, Development of core technology for high performance AMOLED on plastic).

Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Organic photovoltaic cell
  • Organic solar cell
  • Thermal annealing
  • Tungsten oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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