The changes of ginsenoside patterns in red ginseng processed by organic acid impregnation pretreatment

Mi Hyun Kim, Young Chul Lee, Sang Yoon Choi, Chang Won Cho, Jeonghae Rho, Kwang Won Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


In order to enhance bioactive functionalities of ginseng, an acid impregnation processing was applied as a pre-treatment in producing red ginseng. Acid impregnation studies were conducted, and acids (ascorbic, malic, and citric acid) were selected. The optimal concentration of each acid was investigated in this study in terms of ginsenoside contents. The most concerned ginsenoside, Rg3 was increased by ascorbic, malic, and citric acid pre-treated red ginseng up to 1 M acid concentration. In the case of ascorbic acid pre-treated red ginseng, Rg2 concentration was increased depending on acid concentrations. Citric acid pre-treatment enhanced Rg2, Rg3, and Rh1+Rh2 formation in red ginseng. Therefore, ginsenoside patterns in red ginseng could be changed by acid impregnation pre-treatment depending on acid concentration and acid types. This research is expected to contribute to the development of the ginseng industry via new red ginseng products with selective and intensified functionality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)497-503
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Ginseng Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Dec


  • Ascorbic acid
  • Citric acid
  • Impregnation
  • Malic acid
  • Panax ginseng

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • Complementary and alternative medicine


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