The Effect of V/C Ratio on the Phase Formation Behavior in Vanadium Carbide-Based Tool Steel Fabricated through Powder Metallurgy

Sung Min Park, Dae Ha Kim, Tea Sung Jun, Hyeon Tae Im, Nam Seok Kim, Won Seok Ko, Chang Soo Park, Kwangsuk Park, Dong Hoe Kim, Hyung Ki Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study investigates phase formation behavior by considering the vanadium (V) to carbon (C) ratio in vanadium carbide-based tool steel. The V/C ratios are controlled by changing the V content. The samples with the V/C ratio of 4.78 and 6.12 are first prepared through gas atomization with a form of powder and then turned into bulk forms through hot isostatic pressing. The bulk samples are annealed at 1070 °C and then quenched. The hardness values of the 4.78V/C and 6.12V/C samples are 50.7 and 17.3 HRC, respectively. Phases of each sample are analyzed to confirm the reason for the hardness difference. The α′-martensite phase is formed in the matrix of the 4.78V/C sample, whereas the matrix of the 6.12V/C sample is the α-ferrite phase. Thermodynamic calculations and high-temperature phase analysis are performed to examine the difference in the phase formation. In the 4.78V/C sample, the γ-austenite phase is formed at 1070 °C, which transforms to the α′-martensite phase during cooling in the heat treatment process. Meanwhile, the 6.12V/C sample has no austenite phase at 1070 °C, so martensitic transformation does not occur. These analyses confirm that it is crucial to control the phase formation by controlling the contents of V and C with an appropriate ratio.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2300514
JournalSteel Research International
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Feb

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Steel Research International published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • phase transformation
  • powder metallurgy
  • thermodynamic calculations
  • tool steels
  • vanadium carbides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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