The Effects of tDCS with NDT on the Improvement of Motor Development in Cerebral Palsy

Jhosedyn Carolaym Salazar Fajardo, Rock Hyun Kim, Chang Gao, Ji Yeon Hong, Jin Kyu Yang, Dong Gil Wang, Bum Chul Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


We investigated the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) with neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) on the improvement of motor development and reduction of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-four children with CP were allocated to two groups: the tDCS + NDT group and the only NDT group, done 3 times per week for 5 weeks. The Gross Motor Function Measurement (GMFM-88) and Box and Block Test (BBT) were used to assess changes in motor development, and the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) was used to evaluate changes in spasticity. All measurements were carried out at 3 time points: baseline, post-intervention, and 1 month follow-up. We found improvements in the GMFM-88 total scores and in each individual GMFM-88 dimension scores, favoring the tDCS + NDT group over the only NDT group. The BBT scores improved only in the tDCS + NDT group. In addition, the MAS scores reduced in the hemibody with significant motor impairment only in the tDCS + NDT group. The present findings suggest that tDCS combined with NDT can be considered a promising intervention for children with CP, as it can enhance motor development and reduce spasticity in this population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)480-489
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Motor Behavior
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by Korea University (grant number: K2017911). The authors are grateful to the Purme Children’s Rehabilitation Hospital and the Rehabilitation Center King’s Kids (both located in Seoul, South Korea) for their support during the recruitment of the participants and for facilitating their installations for the successful completion of this study. In addition, we thank the Y-Brain Company for providing the tDCS device used in this study.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • cerebral palsy
  • gross motor function
  • motor development
  • neurodevelopmental training
  • transcranial direct current stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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