The ground reaction curve of underwater tunnels considering seepage forces

Young Jin Shin, Byoung Min Kim, Jong Ho Shin, In Mo Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)


When a tunnel is excavated below groundwater table, the groundwater flows into the excavated wall of tunnel and seepage forces are acting on the tunnel wall. Such seepage forces significantly affect the ground reaction curve which is defined as the relationship between internal pressure and radial displacement of tunnel wall. In this paper, seepage forces arising from the ground water flow into a tunnel were estimated quantitatively. Magnitude of seepage forces was estimated based on hydraulic gradient distribution around tunnel. Using these results, the theoretical solutions of ground reaction curve with consideration of seepage forces under steady-state flow were derived. A no-support condition was taken into account. The theoretical solution derived in this study was validated by numerical analysis. The changes in the ground reaction curve according to various ground and groundwater conditions were investigated. Based on the results, the application limit of theoretical solution was suggested.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)315-324
Number of pages10
JournalTunnelling and Underground Space Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Jul

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This paper was supported by the Underground Space Construction Technology Center under the Ministry of Construction and Transportation in Korea (Grant C04-01 ).


  • Ground reaction curve
  • Seepage forces
  • Theoretical solution
  • Tunnel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology


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