The Hospital Safety Scale for Kids: Development of a new measurement tool for hospitalized children

Won Oak Oh, Daejin Song, Jihee Han, Mi Youn Park, Il Tae Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed to develop an instrument to assess the perception of hospital safety among hospitalized children for preschool age children. An initial 30 items of the preliminary Hospital Safety Scale for Kids (HSS-Kids) were generated based on literature reviews and focus-group interviews. The 30 items were developed as different types of hospital-based incidents, situation scenarios, and pictorial animation cards for describing them. The evaluation process was conducted with a sample of 150 hospitalized children and their caregivers. Construct, convergent, and discriminant validities were tested by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. For criterion validity, concurrent validity was confirmed, and reliability was established through Cronbach’s α coefficients. The final 15 HSS-Kids hospital scenario picture cards were categorized into four subdomains, falls, general injuries, burns, and medical devices, which explained 62.92% of the total variance. The HSS-Kids demonstrated construct, convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity, with Cronbach’s αs ranging from.649 to.792. The HSS-Kids is a promising instrument to screen children at high risk of incidents by capturing their perception on hospital safety.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)146-160
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Child Health Care
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Mar

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2020.


  • Child health
  • evidence-based practice
  • incidents
  • pediatrics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Pediatrics


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