This study assesses whether the Indonesia Early Childhood Education and Development (ECED) project had an impact on early achievement gaps as measured by an array of child development outcomes and enrolment. First, using a fixed-effects model with a difference-in-difference estimator that compares children in project villages with those in non-project villages, we find that the positive impacts are concentrated among poor children. Second, extending our fixed-effects model, we also find that the achievement gap between richer and poorer children in project villages decreased on many dimensions compared with the achievement gap in non-project villages.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2015 The World Bank.
- child development
- early achievement gap
- early childhood education
- four-year-old children
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geography, Planning and Development