The study of seepage forces acting on the tunnel lining and tunnel face in shallow tunnels

In Mo Lee, Seok Woo Nam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

193 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, the seepage force problems arising from the flow of groundwater into a tunnel were studied. Firstly, the effect of seepage forces acting on the tunnel lining was studied for the case of shallow drainage-type tunnels and these results were compared with the lining stresses developed for waterproof-type tunnels. This model was then reviewed through a comparison with an actual case study of the Seoul Subway Line No. 5. Secondly, the effect of seepage forces on the tunnel face stability was studied. In this study, two factors were considered simultaneously. The first factor considered was the effective stresses acting on the tunnel face, calculated from the upper bound solution of limit analysis and the other factor was the seepage forces, calculated from a numerical analysis under a steady-state of groundwater flow conditions. Consequently, reasonable design concepts applicable to the design of tunnel lining and to the evaluation of the support pressure required for maintaining thc stability of the tunnel face were suggested for underwater tunnels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-40
Number of pages10
JournalTunnelling and Underground Space Technology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2001 Jan


  • Face stability
  • Seepage force
  • Tunnel lining
  • Underwater tunnel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology


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