The use of a heating pad to reduce anxiety, pain, and distress during cystoscopy in female patients

Hyun Ju Kim, Jong Wook Kim, Hong Seok Park, Du Geon Moon, Jeong Gu Lee, M. M. Oh

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    12 Citations (Scopus)


    Introduction and hypothesis: This study evaluated the effects of using a heating pad during cystoscopy on anxiety, pain, and distress in female patients. Methods: Seventy-four female patients who underwent rigid cystoscopy between January 2017 and August 2017 were randomized to either the experimental group using a heating pad (n = 37) or the control group using a pad without heat (n = 37). In the experimental group, a heating pad was applied to the patient’s sacrum during cystoscopy. All patients completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-S (STAI-S, 20-80) before and after the procedure and assessed their degree of pain and distress after the procedure using a visual analog scale (0–10). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate were also measured before and after the procedure. Results: Demographic characteristics, mean age, procedure duration, and pre- and post-procedural systolic and diastolic blood pressures and pulse rate were statistically similar between the experimental and control groups. The mean STAI-S score of the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (33.1 ± 10.1 vs 48.2 ± 11.1, p < 0.001). The experimental group had significantly lower pain and distress scores (visual analog scale, 3.8 ± 1.6 and 3.8 ± 1.8 respectively,) than the control group (6.4 ± 1.9 and 6.3 ± 2.1 respectively, both p < 0.001). Conclusions: Using a heating pad during cystoscopy significantly reduced female patients’ anxiety, pain, and distress. We found this to be a safe, simple, and effective tool to use during cystoscopy.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1705-1710
    Number of pages6
    JournalInternational Urogynecology Journal
    Issue number10
    Publication statusPublished - 2019 Oct 1


    • Anxiety
    • Cystoscopy
    • Distress
    • Heating pad
    • Pain

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    • Urology


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