Thermal and aging performance characteristics of pouch-type lithium-ion battery using heat pipes under nonuniform heating conditions

Dong Soo Jang, Se Hyeon Ham, Jinyoung Kim, Yongchan Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are excellent energy storage technologies for electric vehicles. However, the performance and life cycle of a battery can be degraded by extremely high temperatures under nonuniform heating conditions. This study aims to investigate the performance improvement of a battery thermal management system (BTMS) using heat pipes (HP) under various heat generation conditions. The cooling performances of the BTMS using aluminum plates (AP) and HP were compared by analyzing battery temperature and life cycle while varying the discharge rate (C-rate) from 1C to 5C and the ambient and liquid temperatures from 25 °C to 40 °C. Furthermore, the nonuniform heat ratio, defined as the heat ratio between the tab and bottom of the battery, was introduced to emulate the uneven temperature distribution, ranging from 1 to 3. The average temperature (Tavg) increases of AP and HP decreased by 22.7 % and 32 %, respectively, compared with that using natural convection (NC). HP showed a much lower maximum temperature (Tmax) and temperature difference (ΔT) of the battery than AP, owing to the effective heat transfer using the heat pipe. During cyclic operation, HP maintained stable Tmax and ΔT within 34.3 °C and 4 °C, respectively. As the nonuniform heat ratio increased, Tmax increased significantly, which was more severe in AP than in HP. HP exhibited up to a 41 % higher normalized performance index of Tmax than AP. Additionally, with the nonuniform heat ratio increasing from 1 to 3 at a C-rate of 5C, the ΔT of AP and HP increased by 7.6 °C and 4.4 °C, respectively. Finally, the normalized equivalent full cycles of AP and HP at a nonuniform heat ratio of 3 and a C-rate of 5C decreased by 4.3 % and 1.6 %, respectively, compared to their performance under uniform heat.

Original languageEnglish
Article number121891
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Jan 10

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd


  • Battery thermal management system
  • Heat pipe
  • Lithium-ion battery
  • Nonuniform heat ratio

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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