Thermal performance of direct two-phase refrigerant cooling for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

Seong Ho Hong, Dong Soo Jang, Seonggi Park, Sungho Yun, Yongchan Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

86 Citations (Scopus)


The lithium-ion battery has been considered as a power source of electric vehicles (EVs). An efficient battery thermal management system is essential for lithium-ion batteries with high cooling performance and long lifetime. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance improvement of a novel direct two-phase refrigerant cooling over a conventional liquid cooling for traction batteries of EVs. Based on full-scale experiments under actual vehicle conditions, the thermal performance of the two-phase refrigerant cooling is compared with that of the conventional liquid cooling with the same outer size. The two-phase refrigerant cooling satisfies the maximum cell temperature limit of 45 °C even under harsh environmental conditions. During aging, the two-phase refrigerant cooling provides 16.1% higher battery capacity and 15.0% lower internal resistance compared with the liquid cooling under harsh environmental conditions. Overall, the two-phase refrigerant cooling is considered a preferred alternative to the conventional liquid cooling owing to its reliable performance even with a simple and lightweight structure.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115213
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jun 5

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Energy Technology Development Program (No. 20173010013220 ) of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd


  • Battery thermal management
  • Electric vehicle
  • Liquid cooling
  • R134a
  • Refrigerant cooling
  • Temperature distribution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Thermal performance of direct two-phase refrigerant cooling for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this