THQ–Xanthene: An Emerging Strategy to Create Next-Generation NIR-I/II Fluorophores

Zhiqiang Mao, Hyeonji Rha, Jungryun Kim, Xinru You, Fan Zhang, Wei Tao, Jong Seung Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Near-infrared fluorescence imaging is vital for exploring the biological world. The short emissions (<650 nm) and small Stokes shifts (<30 nm) of current xanthene dyes obstruct their biological applications since a long time. Recently, a potent and universal THQ structural modification technique that shifts emission to the NIR-I/II range and enables a substantial Stokes shift (>100 nm) for THQ-modified xanthene dyes is established. Thus, a timely discussion of THQ–xanthene and its applications is extensive. Hence, the advent, working principles, development trajectory, and biological applications of THQ–xanthene dyes, especially in the fields of fluorescence probe-based sensing and imaging, cancer theranostics, and super-resolution imaging, are introduced. It is envisioned that the THQ modification tactic is a simple yet exceptional approach to upgrade the performance of conventional xanthene dyes. THQ–xanthene will advance the strides of xanthene-based potentials in early fluorescent diagnosis of diseases, cancer theranostics, and imaging-guided surgery.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2301177
JournalAdvanced Science
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jun 23

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 22174034, 21904031) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province (2021CFB305) and funded by the National Research Foundation of Korea (2018R1A3B1052702).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • fluorescent imaging
  • near-infrared I/II
  • rhodamine
  • theranostic
  • xanthene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • General Engineering
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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