By integrating wireless wide area networks (WWANs) and wireless local area networks (WLANs), mobile hotspot technologies enable seamless Internet multimedia services to users on-board a vehicle. In this paper, we investigate the performance of TCP-Friendly Rate Control (TFRC) protocol supporting multimedia services in mobile hotspots. To quantify the throughput of TFRC flows in mobile hotspots, we first develop discrete-time queuing models for the WWAN link and the WLAN link. We then derive the steady state TFRC throughput using an iterative algorithm. Analytical and extensive simulation results reveal how the end-to-end TFRC throughput is affected by the number of users in a mobile hotspot, the vehicle velocity, the WWAN/WLAN link bandwidth, the retransmission limit, and the buffer size. It is found that the WWAN channel profile and link bandwidth have significant impacts on the TFRC throughput, and therefore suitable resource allocation and admission control are indispensable for the quality and efficiency of multimedia services in mobile hotspots.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received June 29, 2006; revised October 1, 2006; accepted December 6, 2006. The associate editor coordinating the review of this paper and approving it for publication was W. Liao. This work has been supported in part by a Strategic Grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada under Grant No. STPGP 257682, and in part by the Korea Research Foundation Grant No. M01-2005-000-10073-0.
- Mobile hotspot
- Performance analysis
- TCP-friendly rate control
- TFRC throughput
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Science Applications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Applied Mathematics